# Simulation of samples¶

This tutorial demonstrates how to create simple simulations using geometrical volume masks and sources.

[1]:

import warnings
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import colorcet
from mumott import Simulator
from mumott.methods.basis_sets import GaussianKernels
from mumott import Geometry
from mumott.core.geometry import GeometryTuple
from mumott.methods.projectors import SAXSProjectorCUDA
from mumott.output_handling import ProjectionViewer
from mumott.core.projection_stack import ProjectionStack
from mumott.core.projection_stack import Projection
from mumott import DataContainer
from mumott.pipelines import run_mitra

INFO:Setting the number of threads to 8. If your physical cores are fewer than this number, you may want to use numba.set_num_threads(n), and os.environ["OPENBLAS_NUM_THREADS"] = f"{n}" to set the number of threads to the number of physical cores n.
INFO:Setting numba log level to WARNING.


## Defining the volume¶

We begin by defining a mask for the volume wher we wish to create the simulation.

[2]:

size = 50
left_value = size / 2 - 0.5
right_value = size / 2 + 0.5
x, y, z = np.mgrid[-left_value:right_value, -left_value:right_value, -left_value:right_value]
r = np.sqrt(x ** 2 + y ** 2 + z ** 2) * 2 / size

[3]:

f, ax = plt.subplots(1, figsize=(3, 4), dpi=140)

[3]:

<matplotlib.image.AxesImage at 0x7e1cb81df6d0>


## Defining the simulation and sources¶

We define a simple basis set, a GaussianKernels with grid_scale=2, where the small number of coefficients makes it more likely that randomly generated tensors will have a clear orientation, and initialize the simulator. You can change the parameters of the sources and see how it affects their influence and the resulting simulation.

[4]:

basis_set = GaussianKernels(grid_scale=2)

[5]:

simulator.add_source(location=(15, 35, 35), influence_exponent=1, influence_scale_parameter=12)
sources = simulator.sources
influences = sources['influences']


We illustrate the sources, which shows that the Simulator uses the interior distances to determine the influence of each source. The influences always sum to unity.

[6]:

f, ax = plt.subplots(1, 4, figsize=(7, 1.5), dpi=140)
plot_kwargs = dict(cmap='cet_gouldian', vmin=0, vmax=1)

for i, a in enumerate(ax):
a.set_xticks([])
a.set_yticks([])
a.set_title(f'Source {i}')
im = a.imshow(influences[i][:, 25, :], **plot_kwargs)

[6]:

<matplotlib.colorbar.Colorbar at 0x7e1ca8d7dfc0>


## Carrying out the simulation¶

We execute the simulation. There are many parameters that can be tuned, to e.g. modify the norms that the iterative reweighting scheme converges towards, or changing the thresholds for what the optimization considers a small value. One can also make the step size smaller or change the weight and execute the optimization again.

You can choose whether or not to run simulator.reset_simulation() between each optimization attempt. When called, this method will set all simulation coefficients to 0.

[7]:

# simulator.reset_simulation()
simulator.optimize(iterations=25, weighting_iterations=25, tv_weight=0.15, step_size=0.01, power_weight=0.1, residual_delta=1e-2, tv_delta=1e-2, power_delta=1e-3)

Loss: 2.73e+03 Resid: 1.22e+03 TV: 8.33e+03 Pow: 2.61e+03: 100%|█████████████████████████████████████| 25/25 [02:46<00:00,  6.64s/it]


We define some utility functions to plot the simulation.

[8]:

def get_tensor_properties(basis_set, reconstruction, index):
with warnings.catch_warnings():
warnings.filterwarnings('ignore', r'invalid value encountered in divide')
spherical_functions = basis_set.get_output(reconstruction[:, index, None, ...])['spherical_harmonic_analysis']['spherical_functions']
mean = spherical_functions['means'][:, 0, ...]
std = np.sqrt(spherical_functions['variances'][:, 0, ...])
orientation = np.arctan2(-spherical_functions['eigenvectors'][:, 0, ..., 2, 0],
spherical_functions['eigenvectors'][:, 0, ..., 0, 0])
orientation[orientation < 0] += np.pi
orientation[orientation > np.pi] -= np.pi
orientation *= 180 / np.pi
orientation_alpha = np.clip(2 * std / std.max(), 0, 1)
return mean, std, orientation, orientation_alpha

[9]:

sim_mean, sim_std, sim_orientation, sim_orientation_alpha = get_tensor_properties(basis_set, simulator.simulation, 25)

[10]:

colorbar_kwargs = dict(orientation='horizontal', shrink=0.75, pad=0.1)
mean_kwargs = dict(vmin=0, vmax=0.45, cmap='cet_gouldian')
std_kwargs = dict(vmin=0, vmax=0.3, cmap='cet_fire')
orientation_kwargs = dict(vmin=0, vmax=180, cmap='cet_CET_C6')

def config_cbar(cbar):
cbar.set_ticks([i for i in np.linspace(0, 180, 5)])
cbar.set_ticklabels([r'$' + f'{int(v):d}' + r'^{\circ}$' for v in bar.get_ticks()])

[11]:

fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 3, figsize=(10.3, 4.6), dpi=140, sharey=True)

im0 = ax[0].imshow(sim_mean, **mean_kwargs);
im1 = ax[1].imshow(sim_std, **std_kwargs);
im2 = ax[2].imshow(sim_orientation, alpha=sim_orientation_alpha, **orientation_kwargs);

ax[0].set_title('Mean amplitude')
ax[1].set_title('Anisotropic ampl.')
ax[2].set_title('Orientation')

plt.colorbar(im0, ax=ax[0], **colorbar_kwargs)
plt.colorbar(im1, ax=ax[1], **colorbar_kwargs)
bar = plt.colorbar(im2, ax=ax[2], **colorbar_kwargs)
config_cbar(bar)


## Creating artificial data¶

We then define the geometry for the projection simulation, including the rotations and tilts (inner and outer axis-angle pairs). For convenience we save the geometry configuration.

We use a simple spiral scheme, 16 rotations around the main axis with a tilt up to 90 degrees, to see what a near-ideal reconstruction might look like.

[12]:

geometry = Geometry()

number_of_projections = 200

for i in range(number_of_projections):
geometry.append(GeometryTuple())

geometry.inner_angles = np.linspace(0, 32 * np.pi, number_of_projections)
geometry.outer_angles = np.linspace(0, 0.5 * np.pi, number_of_projections)
geometry.p_direction_0 = np.array([0, 0, 1])
geometry.j_direction_0 = np.array([0, 1, 0])
geometry.k_direction_0 = np.array([1, 0, 0])
geometry.inner_axes = np.array([0, 1, 0])
geometry.outer_axes = np.array([1, 0, 0])

geometry.volume_shape = simulator.shape
geometry.detector_angles = np.arange(0, np.pi, np.pi / 8)
geometry.projection_shape = np.array((50, 50))
geometry.write('simulation_geometry.geo')

INFO:None values found in some axis or angle entries, rotations not updated.
INFO:None values found in some axis or angle entries, rotations not updated.
INFO:None values found in some axis or angle entries, rotations not updated.


We then carry out the mapping into detector-image space.

[13]:

projector = SAXSProjectorCUDA(geometry)
basis_set = GaussianKernels(grid_scale=2, probed_coordinates=geometry.probed_coordinates)
forward_projections = basis_set.forward(projector.forward(simulator.simulation.astype(np.float32)))


Then we create a Data container and we append projections to it, and read the previously written geometry.

[14]:

dc = DataContainer()
for i, f in enumerate(forward_projections):
frame = Projection(data=f, diode=np.ones_like(f[..., 0]), weights=np.ones_like(f))
dc.projections.append(frame)


## Reconstructing the artifical data¶

We then carry out a reconstruction to compare to the simulation.

[15]:

results = run_mitra(dc,
use_gpu=True,
maxiter=50,
basis_set_kwargs=dict(grid_scale=2),
use_absorbances=False)

reconstruction = results['result']['x']
basis_set = results['basis_set']

100%|████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████████| 50/50 [00:10<00:00,  4.94it/s]


Finally we compare the reconstruction to the simulation.

[16]:

mean, std, orientation, orientation_alpha = get_tensor_properties(basis_set, reconstruction, 25)
fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, 3, figsize=(7, 6.2), dpi=140, sharey=True, sharex=True)

im0 = ax[0, 0].imshow(mean, **mean_kwargs);
im1 = ax[0, 1].imshow(std, **std_kwargs);
im2 = ax[0, 2].imshow(orientation, alpha=orientation_alpha, **orientation_kwargs);
ax[0, 0].set_ylabel('Reconstruction')

im0 = ax[1, 0].imshow(sim_mean, **mean_kwargs);
im1 = ax[1, 1].imshow(sim_std, **std_kwargs);
im2 = ax[1, 2].imshow(sim_orientation, alpha=sim_orientation_alpha, **orientation_kwargs);
ax[1, 0].set_ylabel('Simulation')

ax[0, 0].set_title('Mean amplitude')
ax[0, 1].set_title('Anisotropic ampl.')
ax[0, 2].set_title('Orientation')


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